Let’s face it, nutrition can be confusing. There is so much information out there, and much of it is flawed, misinterpreted, or flat-out false. Why do these nutrition myths even exist?
- Some reasons could be who is putting the nutrition information out there. Many writers or bloggers who write about nutrition do not have relevant educational and professional backgrounds. It’s always a good idea to see what their credentials are.
- Other reasons relate to the messages themselves and how they are shared. The core elements of evidence-based nutrition are not appealing; for example, “eat your fruits and vegetables.” This statement might be wrongly re-written as, “cure cancer by eating lettuce.” Such a statement may lead to a myth about the “powers” of eating a certain vegetable.
- Like in all sciences, we continually learn more about nutrition through research. There is still a lot we don’t know about food and nutrition.
- Lastly, what we choose to put on our plates is rarely simple.
How do we choose what to eat?
Let’s face it, what we choose to eat is complicated. Factors that affect what we eat include our tastes and preferences, our family’s tastes and preferences, cultural traditions, budgets, values, accessibility, convenience, time, social pressures, and yes, nutrition myths. There is no one way of eating that works for everyone because we are navigating all of these factors when we choose what to eat.
Some nutrition myths last because of how some people draw on their personal experiences and the experiences of those around them. For example, if my friends and I try a diet and it works for all of us, then our human tendencies might lead us to believe that this diet works for everyone. We might want to share it on our Instagram pages in an attempt to help other people. While meaning well, this is a flawed way of interpreting nutrition science and sharing advice.
We should embrace the many reasons why we choose what to eat. However, we should leave nutrition myths out of this decision. Let’s look to credentialed health professionals to separate myths from facts.
Some common nutrition myths
- Myth: Carbohydrates cause weight gain.
Fact: No one nutrient, food, or food group causes weight gain.
Weight gain is complex and cannot be attributed to just one food or food group. In general, weight gain happens when we take in calories in excess of what our body needs to maintain body weight. However, there are other factors that affect body weight.
A diet for optimal health includes many foods with carbohydrates, which are our body’s preferred source of energy. When it comes to carbohydrates, consider the quality. Choose carbohydrates that offer other nutrition including fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Complex carbohydrates with fiber digest and absorb more slowly than simple carbohydrates.
Examples of high-quality carbohydrates include whole grains, fruit, vegetables, beans, and lentils. For more on carbohydrates, check out this past article I wrote.
- Myth: Foods with gluten are unhealthy.
Fact: Only some people need to have a gluten-free diet.
Gluten is a group of proteins found in grains such as wheat, barley, and rye. People who are diagnosed by a doctor with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity should avoid foods with gluten. Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition in which eating gluten results in damage to the small intestine. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is an intolerance to gluten that results in similar symptoms to celiac disease but is not diagnosed as celiac disease. With both conditions, a gluten-free diet will help control symptoms.
For someone without these conditions, foods with gluten can be part of an overall healthy diet. You should emphasize foods that offer more nutrition, such as choosing whole grains over refined grains. Whole grains with gluten include wheatberries and farro.
- Myth: Snacking is unhealthy.
Fact: Snacking can be part of healthy eating, even when trying to lose weight.
Depending on our needs and a meal’s size and composition, a meal with carbohydrates, protein, and fat will keep us full for an average of 3-4 hours. In general, most people have a greater time window than 3-4 hours between meals.
Snacking can help curb hunger while providing fuel to have energy throughout the day. Choose a balanced snack with both protein and a fruit or vegetable. Examples include peanut butter and apple slices, a hard-boiled egg and berries, roasted edamame and carrot sticks, or hummus and celery sticks. Check out this recipe for a healthy hummus I like to make quite often!
Now if you choose a snack with just carbohydrates, like pretzels, may not be a smart choice. Pretzels will be digested quickly. This may result in getting hungry sooner and may possibly lead to overeating at the next meal or snack. A balanced snack with protein, carbohydrates, and fiber digests more slowly, keeping us full for longer.
Another reason to include fruits and veggies in snacks is that many people may have trouble fitting them into a mealtime. Snacks are an easy way to have an additional serving of fruits and veggies.
- Myth: Juicing or cleansing is required to “detox” your body.
Fact: Our body has natural mechanisms through which to detox.
Juices or cleanses claim to help with weight loss, improve skin health, and detox the body by removing toxins, etc. However, there is no one food or diet that can produce these promises. In fact, some cleanses, diets, and supplements may be harmful. Talk to your doctor and registered dietitian before taking supplements or following a diet. Check out this post for more on detox.
We do not need specific foods, drinks, or diets to detox because our body does that for us. Our liver and kidneys remove waste from our bodies while helping maintain hydration and process medicine and alcohol, among other functions. The lungs and skin are also involved in detoxification.
The best way of eating to promote overall health is a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, legumes, whole grains, and lean protein. This way of eating can include other foods too but eaten in smaller amounts less often.
It is difficult to sort nutrition facts from fiction. Follow these strategies to find nutrition information and if in doubt, ask a credentialed healthcare professional like a registered dietitian. Keep an open mind but maintain a healthy dose of skepticism.
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